The groundwork for the NDRL was laid in the 1940s when the U.S. government required a high-power particle accelerator for radiation research relating to the Manhattan Project — the research effort to develop the nuclear bombs used in World War II. The only suitable machine in the Chicago region was owned by the Notre Dame Physics Department, housed in what is now the LaFortune Student Center. Former Notre Dame chemistry professor Milton Burton was commissioned by the U.S. government to perform the necessary research on the effects of ionizing radiation. In 1949, Burton formally established the NDRL, and the Radiation Research Building that now houses the lab was completed in 1963, funded by the Atomic Energy Commission.The lab is now owned and primarily funded by the Office of Science within the U.S. Department of Energy. It has continued to perform research on the fundamental properties of radiation, as well as photochemical research. Ian Carmichael, NDRL Director since 2004, said the lab focuses on basic, rather than applied, research, but the research could have important applications in nuclear power.“We do basic research investigating the fundamentals of radiation chemistry and, more recently, solar photochemistry as well,” he said. “The complementary thrust to radiation chemistry is targeted at basic understanding of radiation, but also to the impact of radiation chemistry on nuclear power, such as radiation degradation of reactor materials, very hot water in reactors and so on.”While the Department of Energy is the main source of grant funding, Carmichael said the NDRL has received smaller grants from the National Science Foundation (NSF), National Institutes of Health (NIH), the U.S. military and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), among other organizations. While the lab was previously operated on a government contract, Carmichael said that since 2004 there has been a cooperative agreement in place between the University and the government.The NDRL houses a linear particle accelerator, as well as several Van de Graaff accelerators. Additionally, the lab has a scientific glassblower and a machinist on staff who provide specialty components and equipment maintenance to the NDRL and other science departments on campus. Radiation research remains the lab’s focus, Carmichael said, but photochemical research has become a secondary aim of the lab in recent years. Andrew Cameron | The Observer Assistant research professor Aliaksandra Lisouskaya works on the Notre Dame Radiation Lab’s linear particle accelerator. “Maybe 25% of our resources go towards our solar photochemistry program,” Carmichael said. “That includes trying to understand the fundamentals of solar cells. The big thing in solar energy nowadays is Perovskite solar cells, and we have a program trying to figure out what goes wrong … for some reason they work very well but they don’t last very long, so we’re trying to figure out why they break down and how we can stop that.”The remainder of the resources are dedicated to radiation-related matters, Carmichael said.“The rest goes towards radiation chemistry, which is the high-energy electrons, the gamma rays and so on,” he said. “We’re looking at the effects of stress and radiation-enhanced corrosion on aqueous solutions mainly, but also in materials in aqueous solution in nuclear reactors. Why reactors only live for 40 years, for example.”Carmichael noted the NDRL has never done classified work, partly because the building does not meet the necessary security standards.Aliaksandra Lisouskaya received her Ph.D. in Belarus and is now working as an assistant research professor at Notre Dame, conducting research on radiation chemistry and photochemistry at the NDRL. The equipment available at the NDRL, she said, offers unique research opportunities.“You can find linacs [linear particle accelerators] at other places, but here there is just much more,” Lisouskaya said.While the NDRL doesn’t build devices or research potential applications, Carmichael said it has made valuable contributions to science.“Over the years, we’ve published perhaps 5,000 papers from NDRL in all kinds of journals,” Carmichael said. “Many of these papers have had a huge impact, but we’re not here to promote anything in particular.”Tags: NDRL, Notre Dame Radiation Laboratory, Radiation Research Building To many students, the nondescript concrete building on Library Quad is little more than a source of vague rumors. Its exterior ornamentation consists solely of block letters reading “Radiation Research.”Contrary to campus legends, the Radiation Research Building, housing the Notre Dame Radiation Laboratory (NDRL), may not have 26 stories reaching underground, but what it does have is a world-class array of particle accelerators, lasers, spectrometers and other specialized equipment for probing the secrets of energy and matter. Andrew Cameron | The Observer The control room of the linear particle accelerator allows researchers to remotely control the accelerator from outside the chamber. Particle accelerators are used to monitor the radiation released when particles collide with a target, allowing researchers to gain insight into the composition of subatomic particles.
Manchester United succeeded in offloading striker Romelu Lukaku to Inter Milan on a transfer deadline day which saw plenty of business but few jaw-dropping deals from Premier League clubs.Belgian Lukaku, who spent two years with United after 75 million pounds ($91.05 million) move from Everton, joined Inter for a fee reported to be around 80 million euros.United had been keen to move on the forward who disappointed last season and whose style of play did not suit the approach being taken by Norwegian manager Ole Gunnar Solskjaer.With United unable to sign a replacement, the pressure will be on 21-year-old England forward Marcus Rashford to deliver the goals in a more central role than he has previously operated in.United had already invested heavily to bring in centre-back Harry Maguire from Leicester City for 80 million pounds, making him the most expensive defender in the world.Solskjaer has also added right-back Aaron Wan-Bissaka and winger Dan James, while some fringe players may yet move out while the European transfer window remains open until Sept. 2.Spurs tie up 2 deals on deadline dayTottenham Hotspur famously spent nothing in the window a year ago before reaching the Champions League final but tied up two deals for manager Mauricio Pochettino on deadline day.Argentina midfielder Giovani Lo Celso joined from Spanish side Real Betis on a season-long loan with an option for a permanent switch.Highly-rated 19-year-old Ryan Sessegnon was bought from Fulham for a reported initial fee of 25 million pounds — the left wing-back signing a five-year deal.advertisementArsenal sign Kieran TierneyTottenham’s north London rivals Arsenal were also active, spending a reported 25 million pounds on Celtic’s highly-rated Scotland left-back Kieran Tierney.Media reports said Unai Emery’s side were also trying to bring in Brazilian defender David Luiz from Chelsea but could lose midfielder Alex Iwobi to Everton in a deal worth up to 40 million pounds, although neither of those deals had been confirmed before the 1700 local (1600 GMT) deadline.Former England striker Andy Carroll has rejoined his boyhood club Newcastle United, 8-1/2 years after leaving them to join Liverpool in a then British record transfer.The injury-plagued 30-year-old was a free agent after being released by West Ham United at the end of last season.Watford signed Senegal winger Ismaila Sarr from French club Rennes on a five-year deal for a club-record fee.Watford did not disclose the cost but French media reported it was in the region of 32 million pounds, eclipsing the 18.5 million pounds the Hornets paid for forward Andre Gray in 2017.Chelsea midfielder Danny Drinkwater, who has struggled to get game time in the two years at Stamford Bridge since his move from Leicester, joined Burnley on a six-month loan deal.Australia midfielder Aaron Mooy moved from second-tier Huddersfield Town, who were relegated from the top flight last season, to Brighton & Hove Albion on a season-long loan.Also Read | Mohun Bagan condemn razing of East Bengal’s centenary gate, offer to bear expenses for re-erectionAlso See: